Why Are International Agreements Needed For Biodiversity Conservation

Swanson, T., Groom, B. (2012). Global biodiversity regulation: what is the problem? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 28 (1), 114-138. doi:10.1093/oxrep/grs003. Chou, P.B., Sylla, C. (2008). The creation of an international environmental agreement as an exclusive set of cartels and abuse of dominant position with transferable distribution companies. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Justice and Economy, 8 (4), 317-341. All of these agreements contribute to the implementation of the 2011-2020 Global Biodiversity Strategic Plan and contribute to efforts to achieve the 2020 biodiversity targets (20 Aichi targets).

These were adopted in October 2010 in Nagoya (Aichi Prefecture) for the concrete implementation of the CBD. Our model shares some features with a model developed by Winands et al. (2013), but differs on some important aspects. First, the specifications of the model are different. While Winands et al. (2013) use a constant elasticity of substitution function (CES) to take into account different degrees of substitutability between ecosystems, we use a quadratic utility function to represent the subadiddicific aspect of global biodiversity conservation. Second, winands et al. (2013) use protected hectares as a measure of conservation, while we propose a census of species. Third, the four country categories in our model differ from those presented in their study. In Winands et al. (2013), countries differ in two dimensions: the richness and richness of biodiversity, while in our model countries, the benefits and costs of conservation differ. Finally, we look at a model with countries (with 3 countries in each category) that allows for many different types of agreements, i.e.

coalitions made up of different figures and types of countries. Winands et al. (2013) limits their analysis to four countries, one of each type. National biodiversity conservation policies and programmes are the main indicators of reaction. For example, the Ugandan government has launched a national wetland conservation and management policy. In Australia, the implementation of the Ramsar Convention is coordinated by a network of national/territorial officials under the auspices of the Australian and New Zealand Councils for the Environment and Nature Conservation (Ministers). Bill Phillips of the Australian Nature Conservation Agency convenes this network and is also responsible for the management of the Australian Wetlands Conservation Agency (1995).