In addition to the original NAFTA provisions, the USMCA borrows significant credits under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its willingness to implement the agreement and joined Canada.  The agreement came into force on July 1, 2020.     On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate adopted the revised treaty by 107-1 votes.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.  According to a study published in the Journal of International Economics, nafta reduced manufacturing pollution in the United States: “On average, nearly two-thirds of reductions in emissions of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from manufacturing in the United States between 1994 and 1998 are due to trade liberalization after NAFTA.”  The United States had a trade surplus of $28.3 billion in 2009 with NAFTA countries for services and, in 2010, a trade deficit of $94.6 billion (36.4% per year) for goods. This trade deficit represented 26.8% of the total U.S. trade deficit.  A 2018 study on international trade published by the Center for International Relations identified irregularities in NAFTA trade patterns using network theory analysis techniques. The study showed that the U.S.
trade balance was influenced by the potential for tax evasion in Ireland.  President Donald Trump`s greatest trade performance, the U.S.-Mexico-Canada agreement, takes effect Wednesday, replaces NAFTA and ends his threat to disintegrate the free trade zone with three nations. A fourth round of talks included a U.S. request for a sunset clause that would end the agreement in five years unless the three countries agreed to keep it in place, a provision that U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said would allow to kill countries if it didn`t work. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met with the House Ways and Means Committee because Congress would have to pass legislation that re-releases the treaty provisions if Trump tries to pull out of the pact.  A 2014 study on the impact of NAFTA on U.S. trade employment and investment showed that the U.S. trade deficit with Mexico and Canada increased from $17.0 billion to $177.2 billion between 1993 and 2013 and supplanted 851,700 U.S. jobs.  On September 30, 2018, the deadline for negotiations between Canada and the United States, an interim agreement was reached between the two countries, thus retaining the trilateral pact when the Trump administration submits the agreement to Congress.
 The new name of the agreement was the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and came into force on July 1, 2020.   The adoption of NAFTA has resulted in the removal or removal of barriers to trade and investment between the United States, Canada and Mexico. The impact of the agreement on issues such as employment, the environment and economic growth has been the subject of political controversy.